PAKGANA KOSI. 363 of the municipality, a loan of Rs. 12,000 was contracted, with the sanction of Government, to be repaid in the course of four years by half-yearly instalments, beginning from October, 1874=. Before application was made for the loan, Rs. 6,000 had been already expended, and with a further allotment, to about the same extent, from ordinary municipal income, the market might have been completed by the end of 1878. But unexpected changes in the schedule of taxation reduced the octroi receipts so considerably that the annual income was nearly all exhausted by the charges for establishment, repairs, and the repayment of the loan. Thus the work dragged slowly on ; and since I have left the district has come, I believe, to a dead stand-still. At its commence- ment an illustration was afforded of the extraordinary mania with which the local baniyas are possessed for hoarding large quantities of grain. This they do in the hope that a year of famine will come when they will be able to realise a rapid fortune by selling their stores at enormously high rates. As the grain is simply thrown into a pit sunk in the ground, and no precautions taken to preserve it from-the damp, in a few years the greater part of it be- comes quite unfit for human consumption, and its sale would only increase the general distress by spreading disease. This, however, is a consideration which has no influence on the mind of a baniya : he has a fixed method of squaring accounts with Providence, and holds that the foundation of a sumptuous temple, at the close of his life, is an ample atonement for all sins of fraud and peculation, and the only one which Divine justice Is entitled to demand from, him. Such a pit came to light after the heavy raics of 18 78. Five of the shops then in course of construction began to settle and give way to such an extent that they had to be taken down. On digging a few feet below the foundations to ascer- tain, if possible, the- cause of the accident, a subterranean granary was revealed •with an invoice stating that it had been filled in Sambat 1898 (1841 A.D.), and contained in all 1,303 mans of different kinds of grain. The greater part of this was so much damaged that it had to be destroyed, and the sale of the remainder realised only Us. 324, which did not cover the cost incurred in dig- ging it out, filling up the pit, and rebuilding the shops. The tahsili school was built by the Public Works Department at a cost of Rs. 6,000. The police, maintained by the municipality on an annual grant of Bs. 1,800, are located In a corner of the sarae, with an entrance made through the old wall directly on to the high road, opposite the parao. "The latter is the property of private individuals, who levy a toll on every anginal or vehicle driven into its enclosure, —the rates being fixed by the municipality— and pay Es. 10 a month for the monopoly.